A New Era in Citation and Bibliometric Analyses: Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar

Lokman I. Meho and Kiduk Yang
School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, 2007

Abstract:

Academic institutions, federal agencies, publishers, editors, authors, and librarians increasingly rely on citation analysis for making hiring, promotion, tenure, funding, and/or reviewer and journal evaluation and selection decisions. The Institute for Scientific Information’s (ISI) citation databases have been used for decades as a starting point and often as the only tools for locating citations and/or conducting citation analyses. ISI databases (or Web of Science), however, may no longer be adequate as the only or even the main sources of citations because new databases and tools that allow citation searching are now available. Whether these new databases and tools complement or represent alternatives to Web of Science (WoS) is important to explore. Using a group of 15 library and information science faculty members as a case study, this paper examines the effects of using Scopus and Google Scholar (GS) on the citation counts and rankings of scholars as measured by WoS. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of WoS, Scopus, and GS, their overlap and uniqueness, quality and language of the citations, and the implications of the findings for citation analysis. The project involved citation searching for approximately 1,100 scholarly works published by the study group and over 200 works by a test group (an additional 10 faculty members). Overall, more than 10,000 citing and purportedly citing documents were examined. WoS data took about 100 hours of collecting and processing time, Scopus consumed 200 hours, and GS a grueling 3,000 hours.

Conclusions by the authors:

The study found that the addition of Scopus citations to those of WoS could significantly alter the ranking of scholars. The study also found that GS stands out in its coverage of conference proceedings as well as international, non-English language journals, among others. GS also indexes a wide variety of document types, some of which may be of significant value to researchers. The use of Scopus and GS, in addition to WoS, reveals a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the extent of the scholarly relationship between LIS and other fields, as evidenced by the unique titles that cite LIS literature (e.g., titles from Cognitive Science, Computer Science, Education, and Engineering, to name only a few). Significantly, this study has demonstrated that:

  1. Although WoS remains an indispensable citation database, it should not be used alone for locating citations to an author or title, and, by extension, journals, departments, and countries; Scopus should be used concurrently.
  2. Although Scopus provides more comprehensive citation coverage of LIS and LIS-related literature than WoS for the period 1996-2005, the two databases complement rather than replace each other.
  3. While both Scopus and GS help identify a considerable number of citations not found in WoS, only Scopus significantly alters the ranking of scholars as measured by WoS.
    Although GS unique citations are not of the same quality as those found in WoS or Scopus, they could be very useful in showing evidence of broader international impact than could possibly be done through the two proprietary databases.
  4. GS value for citation searching purposes is severely diminished by its inherent problems. GS data are not limited to refereed, high quality journals and conference proceedings. GS is also very cumbersome to use and needs significant improvement in the way it displays search results and the downloading capabilities it offers for it to become a useful tool for large-scale citation analyses.
  5. Given the low overlap or high uniqueness between the three tools, they may all be necessary to develop more accurate maps or visualizations of scholarly networks and impact both within and between disciplines (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Börner, Sanyal, & Vespignani, 2006; Small, 1999; White & McCain, 1997).
  6. Each database or tool requires specific search strategy(ies) in order to collect citation data, some more accurately and quickly (i.e., WoS and Scopus) than others (i.e., GS).

(Accepted for publication in the Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology)

About these ads

About Wilfred Mijnhardt
RMIMR is my virtual playground, a place to reflect on issues from my professional context, my job as Policy Director at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University (RSM). RSM is the international university based business school at Erasmus University Rotterdam. More info here: www.rsm.nl Here is my list of relevant publications on the topic of my RMIMR weblog: http://www.mendeley.com/collections/694621/RMIMR-Repository/ The rss feed for my RMIMR collection is here: http://www.mendeley.com/collections/rss/694621/ Here is my other weblog on impact of research: http://www.scoop.it/t/dualimpact

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

RSS Business School News

  • LSU's business school to boost energy industry education - EagleFordTexas.com March 3, 2015
    LSU's business school to boost energy industry educationEagleFordTexas.comLouisiana State University's E.J. Ourso College of Business is adding a new program, and it's perfect for the state's essential role in America's quest for energy independence. The business school's dean, Richard White, is working to add an energy ...and m […]
  • Hult International Business School - BostInno March 3, 2015
    BostInnoHult International Business SchoolBostInnoRenovations are complete at One Education Street in Cambridge, MA. The Hult International Business School has expanded its residence in the former EF North American headquarters to include five floors of state-of-the-art and modern designed educational ...
  • NIBE and business school to host discussion on ethics in businesses - The Journal March 3, 2015
    The JournalNIBE and business school to host discussion on ethics in businessesThe JournalThe event, through which it is hoped a peer support network will emerge, will take place tomorrow evening at Newcastle University Business School from 4.30pm. It will include talks from Mike Wade, finance director at construction company Hodgson Sayers ...
  • Blowing up the Business Plan at UC Berkeley Haas Business School - UC Berkeley (blog) March 3, 2015
    UC Berkeley (blog)Blowing up the Business Plan at UC Berkeley Haas Business SchoolUC Berkeley (blog)Today the U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School is a leader in entrepreneurship education. It has replaced how to write a business plan with hands-on Lean Startup methods. It's teaching the LaunchPad® and the I-Corps for the National Science Foundation ...an […]
  • AstraZeneca and Cambridge Judge Business School announce collaboration to ... - Press Release Rocket March 3, 2015
    PharmaTimesAstraZeneca and Cambridge Judge Business School announce collaboration to ...Press Release RocketAstraZeneca and the Cambridge Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge today announced an agreement to deliver a new “Accelerate Cambridge Life Sciences” programme at the business school which will identify, train and mentor start-up ...AZ, […]
  • 2016 Best Graduate Schools Preview: Top 10 Business Schools - U.S. News & World Report March 3, 2015
    U.S. News & World Report2016 Best Graduate Schools Preview: Top 10 Business SchoolsU.S. News & World Report​Thinking about applying to graduate school? Whether you're interested in pursuing an MBA or attending law school or medical school, there are some big decisions to make. To help students find the right school for them, U.S. News & Worl […]
  • AstraZeneca and Judge Business School announce new programme to train ... - Cambridge News March 3, 2015
    PharmaTimesAstraZeneca and Judge Business School announce new programme to train ...Cambridge NewsAstraZeneca and the Cambridge Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge today announced an agreement to deliver a new “Accelerate Cambridge Life Sciences” programme at the business school which will identify, train and mentor start-up ...AZ, Cambridge […]
  • Should Business School Deans Know Real Business? - Forbes March 2, 2015
    BusinessBecauseShould Business School Deans Know Real Business?ForbesWith this surplus, business schools ratchet up salaries for everyone, especially for professors who do “research.” This research usually has no practical value. In order to show that business is a “science”, researchers have to prove their hypothesis ...Private Equity, Hedge Funds Lure MBAs […]
  • Harvard and Stanford's business schools don't look as good as Brigham Young's ... - Quartz March 2, 2015
    QuartzHarvard and Stanford's business schools don't look as good as Brigham Young's ...QuartzMost business school rankings have one of Harvard or Stanford on top, their graduates command the highest salaries, and benefit from particularly powerful networks. But a report from student lender M7 Financial puts them below Brigham Young's Marr […]
  • Harvard Business School hopes to fundamentally change online education with ... - Business Insider Australia February 27, 2015
    Business Insider AustraliaHarvard Business School hopes to fundamentally change online education with ...Business Insider AustraliaThis week, Harvard Business School launched an innovative new online education program to the public that it thinks is so far ahead of free online courses that it's worthy of a $US1,500 price tag. The 11-week pre-MBA program […]
Locations of Site Visitors
Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

%d bloggers like this: