ESI: only 4 countries received at least 50.000 citations in the period 2002-2012 in the field of Economics & Business, Netherlands included.

Essential Science Indicators has been updated as of September 1, 2012 to cover a 10-year plus 6-month period, January 1, 2002-June 30, 2012.

The field of economics & Business covers 289 journals in the essential science Indicators of Web of Science.

Only 4 countries received on avarage at least 50.000 citations  in the period covered by the ESI. But the size of the production difefers very much. USA still by far the largets producers of papers in economics and business.

Country Papers Citations Citations Per Paper
1 USA 76.363 735.703 9,63
2 UK 21.348 158.187 7,41
3 CANADA 10.231 72.803 7,12
4 NETHERLANDS 7.338 53.213 7,25
5 GERMANY 11.140 52.663 4,73

ESI: only 20 ISI journals in Economics & Business receive on average at least 20 citations per article over the last ten years

Essential Science Indicators has been updated as of September 1, 2012 to cover a 10-year plus 6-month period, January 1, 2002-June 30, 2012.

The field of economics & Business covers 289 journals in the essential science Indicators of Web of Science. Only about 20 journals received on avarage at least 20 citations per paper in the period covered by the ESI.

Here is the list:

Journal Papers Citations Citations Per Paper
QUART J ECON 397 16894 42,55
ACAD MANAGE REV 377 15731 41,73
ADMIN SCI QUART 191 7854 41,12
J ECON LIT 200 8111 40,55
MIS QUART 380 14346 37,75
ACAD MANAGE J 631 23325 36,97
J FINAN 873 28216 32,32
J MARKETING 469 14346 30,59
J POLIT ECON 378 11526 30,49
STRATEG MANAGE J 717 20049 27,96
J ECON PERSPECT 457 11199 24,51
ORGAN SCI 613 14996 24,46
ECONOMETRICA 628 15223 24,24
J MANAGE 488 11413 23,39
J ECON GROWTH 132 3038 23,02
J FINAN ECON 932 20463 21,96
REV ACC STUD 57 1142 20,04
J ACCOUNT ECON 351 7028 20,02
J OPER MANAG 465 9304 20,01

Reasons for citation; why would you cite an author or the work?

What are the reasons and motivations for citing the work of others or yourself?  Are all citations equal? I want to list as many reasons as I can find.

Following Lena Lindgren I will distinguish 3 kinds of reasons:  Publication dependent, author dependent or other reasons. I will use Lena’s set as base set but I will add some more reasons as I collect them along the way.

Publication-dependent reasons

  1. Identify related body of work
  2. earlier work on which current work builds
  3. Best/most relevant work on the subject
  4. Substantiate claims/establish precedence
  5. No other sources of data
  6. Using/giving credit to ideas, concepts, theories, methodology, and empirical findings by others.
  7. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed, ‘classics’.
  8. Mentions of other works (‘see also’, ‘see for example’) without further reference.
  9. The cited publication is an overview in the field.
  10. The content of the cited publication is of a high quality.
  11. Criticizing the work of others.
  12. Providing background reading, to give ‘completeness’.
  13. Substantiating, legitimating own statements or assumptions.
  14. Alerting to forthcoming work.
  15. The cited publication is frequently cited by other authors in the field.
  16. The cited publication has been seriously criticized by other authors in the field.
  17. The cited publication is a recent one on a ‘hot’ topic.
  18. Critically analyze/correct earlier work
  19. Of equally valid sources, chose this one
  20. Ease of access to the cited work

Author-dependent reasons

  1. Establish writer’s authority in the field
  2. Paying homage to pioneers/giving credit for related work.
  3. Ceremonial citation, the author of the cited publication is regarded as ‘authoritative’.
  4. The author of the cited publication is a man.
  5. The cited publication is written by a large number of co-authors.
  6. Maintaining of professional and/or social connections.

Other reasons

  1. Demonstrating familiarity with important literature.
  2. Demonstrating familiarity with prestigious journals.
  3. Demonstrate scholarship (e.g. excessive self-citation).
  4. Appealing to editors, readers or reviewers in which the citing publication is published.
  5. The cited publication is easily available for examination.
  6. Political pressure
  7. Raise citation count

A new measure of esteem: prestige or how often is a researcher cited by highly cited researchers?

Prestige & Popularity

Ding and Cronin make a nice distinction between popularity and prestige of a researcher; popularity of a researcher is measured by the number of times he is cited
by all papers in a dataset; the prestige of a researcher by the number of times he is cited by highly cited papers in the same set.  A scholar may be highly cited but not highly regarded: popularity
and prestige are not identical measures of esteem. The authors focus primarily on authors rather than journals.

Popularity vs. Prestige
Popularity and prestige exist in the following possible relations:
High popularity-high prestige, High popularity-low prestige, Low popularity-high prestige and Low popularity-ow prestige



Popular and/or Prestigious? Measures of Scholarly Esteem
Ying Ding, Blaise Cronin
School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
Citation analysis does not generally take the quality of citations into account: all citations are weighted equally irrespective of source. However, a scholar may be highly cited but not highly regarded: popularity and prestige are not identical measures of esteem. In this study we define popularity as the number of times an author is cited and prestige as the number of times an author is cited by highly cited papers. Information Retrieval (IR) is the test field. We compare the 40 leading researchers in terms of their popularity and prestige over time. Some authors are ranked high on prestige but not on popularity, while others are ranked high on popularity but not on prestige. We also relate measures of popularity and prestige to date of Ph.D. award, number of key publications, organizational affiliation, receipt of prizes/honors, and gender.

Science-metrix develops new journals classification system (and interactive webtool) using both the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) and Scopus (Elsevier).

sciencemetrix explorerA new set of tools recently released (first public release: 2010-12-01 (v1.00)) by Science-Metrix Inc. seeks to improve the way we talk about and understand science. The US/Canada-based research evaluation firm has developed a new, multi-lingual (18 languages!) classification of scientific journals, which is accompanied by an interactive web tool.  The journal classification, which covers 15,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals, is translated by more than 22 international experts who volunteered their time and expertise, making the tools available to a worldwidScience-metrix logoe audience.  The complete journals list is available for download as excel sheet.

The interactive ‘Scientific Journals Ontology Explorer’ allows users to visualise the links between 175 scientific specialties (subject categories) in 18 languages, from Arabic to Swedish.

The visualization contains 3 different views: a circular “Subfield Citation Wheel” (representing both citations as well as references), a “Field Citation Wheel” (showing the links between distinct scientific disciplines) and a network “Map of Science” (revealing similarities between disciplines by relative distance). The goal of this visualization is to show people how science spans a broad universe and how interlinked scientific research actually is.

How is the field of Business & Management covered in the journals list?

The field of  Economics & Business (as part of the domain Economic & Social Sciences) contains 822 journals (this is 5,4% of he total Science metrix list)  in 12 subfields, where Business & Management is included with 222 journals (27%):

Every journal is classified into only one category.

Subfields of ‘Economics & Business’ N %
Accounting 32 3,9%
Agricultural Economics & Policy 27 3,3%
Business & Management 222 27,0%
Development Studies 42 5,1%
Econometrics 13 1,6%
Economic Theory 13 1,6%
Economics 244 29,7%
Finance 63 7,7%
Industrial Relations 21 2,6%
Logistics & Transportation 49 6,0%
Marketing 61 7,4%
Sport, Leisure & Tourism 35 4,3%
Total Journals 822 100%

I will compare these with our ERIM Journals list, the ISI quartiles and the SJR (scopus) quartiles scores to see how the list is structured in terms of quality layers.

(I wil add these details later this week.)

In the ontology browser, you can create a map of science and learn how the field of business and management is connected to other subject categories. I have selected the closest fields in the screenshot below.

business and management in science metrix

About Science-Metrix:

Science-Metrix is the world’s largest independent firm dedicated to scientometrics, technometrics, and science and technology (S&T) evaluation. The firm’s core business involves supporting evidence-based decision-making with strong empirical data and sound theoretical approaches. This contract research organization combines qualitative and quantitative techniques to deliver high quality program evaluations, performance and outcome assessments, and evaluation frameworks. Every Science-Metrix report is produced by a team of dedicated high-calibre experts and relies on the world-class data found in the Scopus, Web of Science and Questel databases.

How are the stocks (top journals) performing over a period of 28 years?

Sciencewatch has published the latest Journal Performance Indicators (JPI’s) for the field of business.  This chart shows which journals perform in the top over decades.  It shows that the very top of the field is very stable over a longer period.  Publishing in these top journals can be seen as a stable investment for researchers; it increases the possibility of a good citation yield.

The table below compares the citation impact of journals in the field of business as measured over three different time spans. The left-hand column ranks journals based on their 2008 “impact factor,” as enumerated in the current edition of Journal Citations Report. The 2008 impact factor is calculated by taking the number of all current citations to source items published in a journal over the previous two years and dividing by the number of articles published in the journal during the same period–in other words, a ratio between citations and recent citable items published. The rankings in the next two columns show impact over longer time spans, based on figures from Journal Performance Indicators. In these columns, total citations to a journal’s published papers are divided by the total number of papers that the journal published, producing a citations-per-paper impact score over a five-year period (middle column) and a 28-year period (right-hand column).

Journals Ranked by Impact: Business
Rank 2008 Impact Factor Impact 2004-08 Impact 1981-2008
1 Academy of Management Review
Administrative Science Quarterly
Administrative Science Quarterly
2 Academy of Management Journal
Academy of Management Journal
Academy of Management Review
3 Journal of Retailing
Academy of Management Review
Journal of Marketing
4 Journal of Marketing
Journal of Marketing
Academy of Management Journal
5 Strategic Management Journal
Strategic Management Journal
Strategic Management Journal
6 Marketing Science
Journal of Management
Journal of Consumer Research
7 Journal of Management
Marketing Science
(6.10 )
Journal of Marketing Research
8 Journal of International Business Studies
Journal of Consumer Psychology
Journal of Management
9 Administrative Science Quarterly
Journal of International Business Studies
Sloan Management Review
10 Journal of Consumer Psychology
Journal of Organizational Behavior
Marketing Science

Another new Citation Impact tool on Scopus data: Scimago

Declan Butler, Free journal-ranking tool enters citation market, Nature News, January 2, 2008. Excerpt:

A new [OA] Internet database lets users generate on-the-fly citation statistics of published research papers for free. The tool also calculates papers’ impact factors using a new algorithm similar to PageRank, the algorithm Google uses to rank web pages. The open-access database is collaborating with Elsevier, the giant Amsterdam-based science publisher, and its underlying data come from Scopus, a subscription abstracts database created by Elsevier in 2004.

The SCImago Journal & Country Rank database was launched in December by SCImago,

Thomson is also under fire from researchers who want greater transparency over how citation metrics are calculated and the data sets used. In a hard-hitting editorial published in Journal of Cell Biology in December, Mike Rossner, head of Rockefeller University Press, and colleagues say their analyses of databases supplied by Thomson yielded different values for metrics from those published by the company (M. Rossner et al . J. Cell Biol. 179, 1091–1092 ; 2007). Thomson, they claim, was unable to supply data to support its published impact factors. “Just as scientists would not accept the findings in a scientific paper without seeing the primary data,” states the editorial, “so should they not rely on Thomson Scientific’s impact factor, which is based on hidden data.”

It also includes a new metric: the SCImago Journal Rank (SJR).

The familiar impact factor created by industry leader Thomson Scientific, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is calculated as the average number of citations by the papers that each journal contains. The SJR also analyses the citation links between journals in a series of iterative cycles, in the same way as the Google PageRank algorithm. This means not all citations are considered equal; those coming from journals with higher SJRs are given more weight. The main difference between SJR and Google’s PageRank is that SJR uses a citation window of three years. See Table 1

I tested some testing on the marketing research subfield of business and management (see screenshot). I ranked the list according to total cites over the last 3 years.

Scimago for marketing field

SJR versus JCR:

Let’s take the highest ranked journal form Scimago: Journal of Marketing (sjr 0,107) and compare it with the JCR citation trend. JOM has the higest impactfactor i the ISI subjectcategory Business for 2006. So in general this would mean that the best journals come up equally. But it remains a situation of comparing apples and oranges because the subject categories differ between Scopus and ISI. So the relative position of a journal is different in the two measure systems.

JOM citation trend JCR

Annual Dutch citation-topparade (2000-2004) and tipparade (2004) for economists; not the complete picture

The ESB journal has published it’s list of top economists (esb-economentop_20070405.pdf) again this week. The topparade measures the citation in the Web of science in the period 2000-2004 for articles published in the period 1988-2004. This is a moving time window. The six ‘big’ economics faculties in the Netherlands (EUR, RUG, UM, UvA, UvT, VU) eactable-1-esb-top-30-2007.jpgh submit 20 of their best researchers to the ranking, while the relatively smaller institutes (UU, WUR, DNB, TUD) select each 5 names. The ranking does not cover all of he faculties in the Netherlands, because some choose not to participate and the faculties of management sometimes do not participate. Still the ranking gives an indication of where the best academic research in the Netherlands is done. The ranking also gives an overview of the institutions where the best economists are affiliated. I’m proud to mention that Erasmus University Rotterdam has jumped Tilburg University to the first place in the institutions list this year.

Institutions top 10 2007

The citation chain: Eigenfactor maps the researchers citation trail and the amount of time he spends at each citation along the track.

Another way of mapping and ranking is developed, which ranks journals much as Google ranks websites; the Eigenfactor. This new concept and facility is developed as part of a non-commercial academic research project sponsored by the Bergstrom lab in the Department of follow the trailBiology at the University of Washington. They aim to develop novel methods for the F factor; ISi and NON-ISI combinedevaluating the influence of scholarly periodicals and for mapping the structure of academic research. The Eigenfactor score of a journal is an estimate of the percentage of time that library users spend with that journal. The Eigenfactor algorithm corresponds to a simple model of research in which readers follow chains of citations as they move from journal to journal. Imagine that a researcher goes to the library and selects a journal article at random. After reading the article, the researcher selects at random one of the citations from the article. She then proceeds to the journal that was cited, reads a random article there, and selects a citation to direct her to her next journal volume. The researcher does this ad infinitum. The amount of time that the researcher spends with each journal gives us a measure of that journal’s importance within network of academic citations. The amount of time that a researcher spends with each journal gives an estimate of the amount of time that real researchers spend with each journal. The developers of this new concept use mathematics to simulate this process.

Just to try I searched the Business category in the search option of this facility. As a result of this a list of 717 journals was presented. For all the journals the article influence was listed. The following screenshot gives an overview of the result:

Eigenfactor business category

Reflections on Google Scholar and Hirsch index

Anne Will Harzing reflects on these citation developments form the perspective of the business and management field. Anne WillShe matches these sources with the Publish or Perish software. This website is one of the soources very relevant to stay in touch with. Two new white papers were added: Reflections on Google Scholar and Reflectionson the h-index. These papers discuss the validity, assumptions, and limitationsof the underlying sources and methods used by Publish or Perish.


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