Reasons for citation; why would you cite an author or the work?

What are the reasons and motivations for citing the work of others or yourself?  Are all citations equal? I want to list as many reasons as I can find.

Following Lena Lindgren I will distinguish 3 kinds of reasons:  Publication dependent, author dependent or other reasons. I will use Lena’s set as base set but I will add some more reasons as I collect them along the way.

Publication-dependent reasons

  1. Identify related body of work
  2. earlier work on which current work builds
  3. Best/most relevant work on the subject
  4. Substantiate claims/establish precedence
  5. No other sources of data
  6. Using/giving credit to ideas, concepts, theories, methodology, and empirical findings by others.
  7. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed, ‘classics’.
  8. Mentions of other works (‘see also’, ‘see for example’) without further reference.
  9. The cited publication is an overview in the field.
  10. The content of the cited publication is of a high quality.
  11. Criticizing the work of others.
  12. Providing background reading, to give ‘completeness’.
  13. Substantiating, legitimating own statements or assumptions.
  14. Alerting to forthcoming work.
  15. The cited publication is frequently cited by other authors in the field.
  16. The cited publication has been seriously criticized by other authors in the field.
  17. The cited publication is a recent one on a ‘hot’ topic.
  18. Critically analyze/correct earlier work
  19. Of equally valid sources, chose this one
  20. Ease of access to the cited work

Author-dependent reasons

  1. Establish writer’s authority in the field
  2. Paying homage to pioneers/giving credit for related work.
  3. Ceremonial citation, the author of the cited publication is regarded as ‘authoritative’.
  4. The author of the cited publication is a man.
  5. The cited publication is written by a large number of co-authors.
  6. Maintaining of professional and/or social connections.

Other reasons

  1. Demonstrating familiarity with important literature.
  2. Demonstrating familiarity with prestigious journals.
  3. Demonstrate scholarship (e.g. excessive self-citation).
  4. Appealing to editors, readers or reviewers in which the citing publication is published.
  5. The cited publication is easily available for examination.
  6. Political pressure
  7. Raise citation count

Aim initiative for academic careers: Learning to Think like an Expert Management Researcher

Learning to Think like an Expert Management Researcher
AIM’s online learning resource is intended for postgraduate and research students, but it will also be useful for academics just starting out on a career in the management field. The website is designed to support researchers with developing your critical frame of mind. A constructively critical way of thinking is characteristic of expert researchers, who have gradually built-up their critical thinking capability as a product of their accumulating research experience. Acquiring this capability can be a slow process if it just occurs incidentally: a side-effect of being a student or an academic. But researchers can accelerate their learning as they go along by consciously developing their ability to think critically and to make informed decisions in their research.
Key aspects of studying management are to find things out and then to demonstrate what has been found and why it is significant. This kind of work follows the ‘logic of enquiry’, or detective-work. Finding things out involves asking well-informed questions and designing literature-based and empirical investigations to answer them. Demonstrating what has been found out typically includes writing an account that will convince other people (as with your assignments, dissertation, thesis, or academic articles for publication). Expert researchers have learned the habit of following the logic of enquiry by applying their critical frame of mind. This resource is intended to help you to develop your habit of thinking like an expert.
Researchers can do this here in two ways. First, they can visit the link at the top of this page – Introduction. – to learn more about the approach to detective-work reflected in other sections of the resource. The introduction offers both an ‘advance organizer’, or mental framework, and self-assessment exercises to support learning.
Second, researchers can go to the Key Topics link and choose one of these topics to study by clinking on its link. Each key topic contains a series of learning activities focused on common tasks that postgraduate and research students are expected to undertake. These activities include information for raising awareness and reflective exercises and ideas for integrating learning into academic work. Researchers can click on Additional Resources for some suggested further reading. Whether the researcher is a student interested in personal learning, or an academic who is interested in using the materials in teaching of postgraduate or research students, researchers may wish to visit the Using this Resource link for ideas and information on how to make effective use of the materials.

Link here for all the information:

Cortege according to Peter van Straaten

There is a nice repository with cartoons by Peter van Straaten.

Some of these are related to university topics, like this one: the cortege (1997, 25 januari). I see very unhappy professors with logo’s of companies who pay for these chairs.

Very sharp and still a ‘hot topic’ today.

The cortege

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