The Governance and Performance of Research Universities: Evidence from Europe and the U.S

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

We investigate how university governance affects research output, measured by patenting and international university research rankings. For both European and U.S. universities, we generate several measures of autonomy, governance, and competition for research funding. We show that university autonomy and competition are positively correlated with university output, both among European countries and among U.S. public universities. We then identity a (political) source of exogenous shocks to funding of U.S. universities. We demonstrate that, when a state’s universities receive a positive funding shock, they produce more patents if they are more autonomous and face more competition from private research universities. Finally, we show that during periods when merit-based competitions for federal research funding have been most prominent, universities produce more patents when they receive an exogenous funding shock, suggesting that routine participation in such competitions hones research skill. by Philippe Aghion, Mathias Dewatripont, Caroline Hoxby, Andreu Mas-Colell, Andre Sapir :: SSRN, 2009 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1376154
Show original

The impact of measuring impact of research

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

A recent Go8 report points out the perils of devising policy to measure impact in resarch. Striving for high impact can end in lower impact than was potentially possible, due to its elevated risk.   Summary of the report: Current economic conditions and the increasing competition for government funding are leading to an increased focus on the impact of research. Other factors contributing to this interest include the development of ERA which measures the academic excellence of research and the view that impact measures would complement this assessment; a general concern to improve the operation of the national innovation system; and the need to demonstrate to the public that research funds are well-spent.Measuring the impact of research is difficult because not all impacts are direct and some can be negative or result from the identification of problems that require a non-research response. The time between the performance of research and when its benefits become apparent can be significant, unpredictable and differ for different kinds of research.The likelihood of research having impact depends not just upon the potential of the research but also on the willingness and ability of players in the wider innovation system to make use of the research; and any research does not exist in isolation but draws on the work of other researchers. In assessing impact it is necessary to acknowledge that research aiming to achieve impact will often have a high risk of failure and that there can be different perspectives about whether a particular impact is positive or not.Attempts to measure impact, especially if these are ongoing, can distort behaviours such that they might diminish the probability of research reaching its maximum impact. A rigorous assessment of research impact has also to develop appropriate counterfactuals and consider opportunity costs.Research can have impact through many routes and in different ways. These range from building national capability through advancing knowledge and supporting university teaching, to producing a direct financial return to the institution performing the research and having major economic impact through increases in productivity, employment, competitiveness and business formation. Research can also contribute to national wellbeing through its social impacts and by improving environmental management and sustainability. There are also many intangible benefits of research which are nevertheless real and of value – including on national reputation and attractiveness as a place to learn, work and invest.There is a wide range of methods that it is possible to use to evaluate research impact. They can operate at the level of individual projects or programs, institutions and nations. Each method has its own characteristics and advantages. While different methods can appeal to different target groups, none is complete in itself and none offers unambiguous or certain results. Studies of the same project or program at different times or acrossdifferent time spans can produce widely varying results, reflecting the uncertainty of research and the way in which the value of research outputs can change, depending on the context within which they exist – including subsequent advances in research.Measuring the impact of research is necessary and can be useful but it is important to use the results of such evaluations with care, recognising their fragility. In particular, it is important to assess impact in terms of the impacts the research aimed to achieve, not across all impacts which are possible.. Fulltext is here: http://www.go8.edu.au/__documents/go8-policy-analysis/2011/go8backgrounder23_measimpactresearch.pdf
Show original

The New Einsteins Will Be Scientists Who Share

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

From cancer to cosmology, researchers could race ahead by working together—online and in the open. Adapted from Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science. Networked science has the potential to speed up dramatically the rate of discovery across all of science. We may well see the day-to-day process of scientific research change more fundamentally over the next few decades than over the past three centuries. But there are major obstacles to realizing this goal. Though you might think that scientists would aggressively adopt new tools for discovery, they have been surprisingly inhibited. Ventures such as the Polymath Project remain the exception, not the rule. Consider the idea of sharing scientific data online. The best-known example of this is the human genome project, whose data may be downloaded by anyone. When you read in the news that a certain gene is associated with a particular disease, you’re almost certainly seeing a discovery made possible by the project’s open-data policy. Despite the value of open data, most labs make no systematic effort to share data with other scientists. As one biologist told me, he had been “sitting on [the] genome” for an entire species of life for more than a year. A whole species of life! Just imagine the vital discoveries that other scientists could have made if that genome had been uploaded to an online database. Mr. Nielsen is a pioneer in the field of quantum computing and the author of “Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science,” http://press.princeton.edu/titles/9517.html
Show original

Using the h-index to measure the quality of journals in the field of business and management

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

This paper considers the use of the h-index as a measure of a journal’s research quality and contribution. We study a sample of 455 journals in business and management all of which are included in the ISI Web of Science (WoS) and the Association of Business School’s peer review journal ranking list. The h-index is compared with both the traditional impact factors, and with the peer review judgements. We also consider two sources of citation data – the WoS itself and Google Scholar. The conclusions are that the h-index is preferable to the impact factor for a variety of reasons, especially the selective coverage of the impact factor and the fact that it disadvantages journals that publish many papers. Google Scholar is also preferred to WoS as a data source. However, the paper notes that it is not sufficient to use any single metric to properly evaluate research achievements. Information Processing & ManagementJohn Mingers, Frederico Macri, Dan Petrovici, In Press, Corrected Proof – doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2011.03.009
Show original

Is concentration of university research associated with better research performance?

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university
This paper analyses relationships between university research performance and concentration of university research. Using the number of publications and their citation impact extracted from Scopus as proxies of research activity and research performance, respectively, it examines at a national level for 40 major countries the distribution of published research articles among its universities, and at an institutional level for a global set of 1500 universities the distribution of papers among 16 main subject fields. Both at a national and an institutional level it was found that a larger publication output is associated with a higher citation impact. If one conceives the number of publications as a measure of concentration, this outcome indicates that, in university research, concentration and performance are positively related, although the underlying causal relationships are complex. But a regression analysis found no evidence that more concentration of research among a country’s universities or among an institution’s main fields is associated with better overall performance. The study reveals a tendency that the research in a particular subject field conducted in universities specializing in other fields outperforms the work in that field in institutions specializing in that field. This outcome may reflect that it is multi-disciplinary research that is the most promising and visible at the international research front, and that this type of research tends to develop better in universities specializing in a particular domain and expanding their capabilities in that domain towards other fields. Journal of InformetricsHenk F. Moeda, Félix de Moya-Anegónb, Carmen López-Illescasb, Martijn Visserc, Volume 5, Issue 4, October 2011, Pages 649-658 doi:10.1016/j.joi.2011.06.003
Show original

A Study of Early Indication Citation Metrics

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

Research outputs are growing in number and frequency, assisted by a greater number of publication mediums and platforms via which material can be disseminated. At the same time, the requirement to find acceptable, timely, objective measurements of research “quality” has become more important. Historically, citations have been used as an independent indication of the significance of scholarly material. However, citations are very slow to accrue since they can only be made by subsequently published material. This enforces a delay of a number of years before the citation impact of a publication can be accurately judged. By contrast, each new citation establishes a large number of co-citation relationships between that publication and older material whose citation impact is already well established. By taking advantage of this co-citation property, this thesis investigates the possibility of developing a metric that can provide an earlier indicator of a publication’s citation impact. This thesis proposes a new family of co- citation based impact measures, describes a system to evaluate their effectiveness against a large citation database, and justifies the results of this evaluation against an analysis of a diverse range of research metrics. Tarrant, D. (2011) A Study of Early Indication Citation Metrics. PhD thesis, University of Southampton. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/22960/1/Thesis.pdf
Show original

Effective University Management in Difficult Times

Via Scoop.itDual impact of research; towards the impactelligent university

Any thoughtful discussion of university management in difficult times must occur in at least two contexts. The first is framed by the past half-century, a period in which we have seen the progressive collapse of state financial support for public colleges and universities in the United States, with simultaneous demands for increased student enrolment. The second is the more recent timeframe of the past year, a period whose global financial crisis and concomitant recession have exacerbated the problems that took shape in the last half-century, as historic decreases in US states’ tax revenues have led to additional reductions in state support for public colleges and universities. Private universities have shared in the more recent suffering, because of considerable endowment losses that have coincided with losses in the equities markets. While US universities struggle through the recession, institutions in other parts of the world are somewhat protected by more robust government support. The damage that has occurred in the past half-century and especially in the past year has left public colleges and universities and also many private institutions, particularly in the US, in a precarious condition. We are struggling to preserve our commitments to teaching, research, and service, because of financial constraints, increased operating costs, and other pressures. Effective management is the best, perhaps the only solution to the predicament in which we find ourselves in these difficult times. Paths to a World-Class University, John T. Casteen Global Perspectives on Higher Education, 2011, Volume 23, Section II, 139-157, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-6091-355-6_7
Show original

RSS Business School News

  • An error has occurred; the feed is probably down. Try again later.
Locations of Site Visitors

Altmetric Related stuf

if(typeof(AltmetricWidget) !== 'undefined'){ window.AltmetricWidget489 = new AltmetricWidget("AltmetricWidget489"); }}

%d bloggers like this: